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TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to one or more circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux, which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across any other coils wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between the (possibly many) coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday’s law of induction discovered in 1831 described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil.

Transformers are used for increasing alternating voltages at low current (Step Up Transformer) or decreasing the alternating voltages at high current (Step Down Transformer) in electric power applications, and for coupling the stages of signal processing circuits.

STANDARD

Many specifications list a number of transformer standards and make a statement in the specifications that the transformers must meet these standards. Some definitions and requirements of these standards, such as CSA-C88-M90, IEEE C57.12.00 and IEC 60076 are different. The following have different explanations in these standards:-

  • Normal or usual service conditions.
  • Rated power.
  • Over voltage conditions.
  • Overload capacity at low ambient temperature.
  • Suggested impedances.
  • Tests and test levels.
  • Dimensions and insulation levels of bushings. Also, the external clearances.
  • Oil temperature rise.
  • Types of taps.
  • Tap range.
  • Tolerances on impedance, losses and magnetization current.
TYPES
  • Step up and Step down Transformer
  • Power Transformer
  • Distribution Transformer
  • Uses of Distribution Transformer
  • Instrument Transformer
  • Current Transformer
  • Potential Transformer
  • Single Phase Transformer
  • Three Phase Transformer
APPLICATIONS

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions.

In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers. All but a tiny fraction of the world’s electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer.

In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply.

MATERIALS
  • Solid iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • Amorphous steel
  • Silicon steel
  • Amorphous metals
  • Ferrite ceramics
  • Laminated magnetic cores

Source : Wikipedia, circuitglobe

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