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Timing relays are arranged for an intentional delay in operating their contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly; both air-filled and oil-filled dashpots are used. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed. Relays may be arranged for a fixed timing period, or may be field adjustable, or remotely set from a control panel. Modern microprocessor-based timing relays provide precision timing over a great range.

Some relays are constructed with a kind of “shock absorber” mechanism attached to the armature which prevents immediate, full motion when the coil is either energized or de-energized. This addition gives the relay the property of time-delay actuation. Time-delay relays can be constructed to delay armature motion on coil energization, de-energization, or both.

  • Flashing light control (time on, time off): two time-delay relays are used in conjunction with one another to provide a constant-frequency on/off pulsing of contacts for sending intermittent power to a lamp.
  • Engine auto start control: Engines that are used to power emergency generators are often equipped with “autostart” controls that allow for automatic startup if the main electric power fails. To properly start a large engine, certain auxiliary devices must be started first and allowed some brief time to stabilize (fuel pumps, pre-lubrication oil pumps) before the engine’s starter motor is energized. Time-delay relays help sequence these events for proper start-up of the engine.
  • Furnace safety purge control: Before a combustion-type furnace can be safely lit, the air fan must be run for a specified amount of time to “purge” the furnace chamber of any potentially flammable or explosive vapors. A time-delay relay provides the furnace control logic with this necessary time element.
  • Motor soft-start delay control: Instead of starting large electric motors by switching full power from a dead stop condition, reduced voltage can be switched for a “softer” start and less inrush current. After a prescribed time delay (provided by a time-delay relay), full power is applied.
  • Conveyor belt sequence delay: when multiple conveyor belts are arranged to transport material, the conveyor belts must be started in reverse sequence (the last one first and the first one last) so that material doesn’t get piled on to a stopped or slow-moving conveyor. In order to get large belts up to full speed, some time may be needed (especially if soft-start motor controls are used). For this reason, there is usually a time-delay circuit arranged on each conveyor to give it adequate time to attain full belt speed before the next conveyor belt feeding it is started.
  • On-delay timers
  • Off-delay timers
  • Single-shot timers

Source : Wikipedia, allaboutcircuits

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