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A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps.

Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers and other components of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis.

  • Flow rate describes the rate at which the pump can move fluid through the system, typically expressed in gallons per minute (gpm). The rated capacity of a pump must be matched to the flow rate required by the application or system.
  • Pressure is a measure of the force per unit area of resistance the pump can handle or overcome, expressed in bar or psi (pounds per square inch). As in all centrifugal pumps, the pressure in axial flow pumps varies based on the pumped fluid’s specific gravity. For this reason, head is more commonly used to define pump energy in this way.
  • Head is the height above the suction inlet that a pump can lift a fluid. It is a shortcut measurement of system resistance (pressure) which is independent of the fluid’s specific gravity, expressed as a column height of water given in feet (ft) or meters (m).
  • Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the difference between the pump’s inlet stagnation pressure head and the vapor pressure head. The required NPSH is an important parameter in preventing pump cavitation.
  • Output power, also called water horsepower, is the power actually delivered to the fluid by the pump, measured in horsepower (hp).
  • Input power, also called brake horsepower, is the power that must be supplied to the pump, measured in horsepower (hp).
  • Efficiency is the ratio between the input power and output power. It accounts for energy losses in the pump (friction and slip) to describes how much of the input power does useful work.


  • Dynamic
    • Centrifugal pumps
    • Vertical centrifugal pumps
    • Horizontal centrifugal pumps
    • Submersible pumps
    • Fire hydrant systems
  • Positive Displacement
    • Diaphragm pumps
    • Gear pumps
    • Peristaltic Pumps
    • Lobe pumps
    • Piston Pumps

Pumps and their various components are made up of a number of different materials. Media type, system requirements, and the surrounding environment all are important factors in material selection.

Some of the most common materials used in pumps are described below:

  • Cast iron provides high tensile strength, durability, and abrasion resistance corresponding to high pressure ratings.
  • Plastics are inexpensive and provide extensive resistance to corrosion and chemical attack.
  • Steel and stainless steel alloys provide protection against chemical and rust corrosion and have higher tensile strengths than plastics, corresponding to higher pressure ratings.

Other materials used in pump construction include:

  • Aluminum
  • Brass
  • Bronze
  • Ceramics
  • Nickel-alloy

Source : Wikipedia, globalspec

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