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A power inverter, or inverter, is a power electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.

A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process. Power inverters are primarily used in electrical power applications where high currents and voltages are present; circuits that perform the same function for electronic signals, which usually have very low currents and voltages, are called oscillators. Circuits that perform the opposite function, converting AC to DC, are called rectifiers.


Input Voltage

A typical power inverter device or circuit requires a relatively stable DC power source capable of supplying enough current for the intended power demands of the system. The input voltage depends on the design and purpose of the inverter. Examples include:

  • 12 V DC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from a rechargeable 12 V lead acid battery or automotive electrical outlet.
  • 24, 36 and 48 V DC, which are common standards for home energy systems.
  • 200 to 400 V DC, when power is from photovoltaic solar panels.
  • 300 to 450 V DC, when power is from electric vehicle battery packs in vehicle-to-grid systems.
  • Hundreds of thousands of volts, where the inverter is part of a high-voltage direct current power transmission system.

Output Voltage

The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 120 or 240 VAC at the distribution level, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is driving. This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power. Some inverters also allow selectable or continuously variable output voltages.

  • Single Phase Inverter
  • Half Bridge Inverter
  • Full Bridge Inverter
  • Three Phase Inverter
  • Inverters can be used as an UPS-Uninterruptible power supplies
  • These can be used as standalone inverters
  • These can be used in solar power systems
  • An inverter is the basic building block of an SMPS- switched mode power supply.
  • These can be used in Centrifugal fans, pumps, mixers, extruders, test stands. conveyors, metering pumps. and Web-handling equipment.

Source : Wikipedia, Elprocus

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